MHD-jet

The present situation of space exploration calls for missions beyond the moon and for such missions, chemical propulsion is not a viable option, except for the case of launch vehicles where high thrust is required. Functionally, the inability of chemical propulsion systems to achieve higher exhaust velocities is due to limitation in the maximum tolerable temperature in the combustion chamber and to avoid excessive heat transfer to the walls. more...


INGA IV

The INGA IV thruster is the next generation arcjet thruster of the ''INGA'' (Ionized Noble Gas Accelerator) thruster series developed, build and operated at Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM). Basic components of the INGA IV thruster are a tungsten cathode, a tungsten de Laval nozzle, which also acts as anode, body parts made of stainless steel and sintered boron nitride insulators. more...


Mole-Thrust-Balance

With the INGA IV thruster differential pressure values between the combustion and the vacuum chamber can be recorded and examined. From the measured values and the mass flow rate of the propellant one can calculate thrust forces, using numerical methods. However, the INGA IV thruster itself does not provide direct thrust measurement. For this reason, a thrust balance for experimental studies of the thrust forces is currently designed and developed at ZARM. more...


Grindball

This project is a cooperation work together with the laboratory for micro cutting (LFM) and institute for electric drives (IALB) at the University of Bremen. Central idea of the projects is the development of a mircoscopic axis-less grinding tool. The central element of the grinding tool is a microscopic ball, which is driven by hydraulic forces of a surrounding liquid bed. Additionally the ferromagnetic ball position is controlled by an electromagnetic field. more...


MPD-therm / Thermo-Electro-Emission

Just as in an arc welder, a high-current electric arc is struck between the anode and cathode. As the cathode heats up, it emits electrons, which collide with and ionize a propellant gas to create plasma in MPD thruster. For gases, there are many circumstances where the electron temperature differs from the heavy particle (ions and neutral atoms) temperature. The electrical conductivity and other coefficients in the equations of motion depend on electron temperature. more...


Plasm-Accelerator

Total fuel mass is one of the main economical and technical restrictions while designing space propulsion systems. Given the high costs related to the transport of mass into space, the total fuel mass necessary for accomplishment of the mission should be minimized. An optimum ''thrust/fuel consumption ratio'' demands the maximization of the gas exit velocity for a given mass flow. This can be achieved through the increase of propellant temperature and pressure in the propulsion system, which results in higher values for the speed of sound at the ''throat'' of the de Laval nozzle. more...